| P&G is used to applying a number of investigation methods and methodological tools, apart from usual cross-matching techniques, which are applicable to results obtained by different ways.
We may point out some of the most common survey methodologies used by our experts:
- Questionnaires: to gather both qualitative and quantitative information relevant to the objectives of the research.
- Detailed case studies: in order to identify the practical operation of the programmes under research and show the variety of effects produced. The number and selection method of the cases for study will be such as to ensure valid generalisation of the observations made. Case studies usually involve not only the programme staff under investigation, but also beneficiaries or users of the results of the programmes, as well as any other kinds of stakeholder.
- Face-to-face and phone interviews: in order to collect more complex information that could not easily be obtained through questionnaires, as well as to apply Delphi research techniques.
- Group comparison techniques: methodologies known as "benchmarking" covering a wide range of possibilities. They are based on a comparison between an object under study with a known one.
| Other usual research methods are:
- Impact analysis techniques: in order to enhance the understanding of research design and of existing threads to valid inference.
- Quantitative and new statistical tools: i.e. the easy integration of multiple regression and data analysis into the research design, by means of specific data processing tools.
- Qualitative methods: gathering several tools like rapid reconnaissance techniques, focused group interviews, qualitative synthesis and other.
- Cost-benefit analysis: including a variety of methodologies with application in public expenditure.
- Randomised field experiments: used to assess the early impact of new programmes, of especial interest to most public initiatives.
- Design and measurement techniques of indicators, in order to check their accuracy and effectiveness.
- Graphic statistics and data analysis.
- Economic modelling techniques, not only the classical macro-economic or econometric analyses, but also innovative stochastic techniques based on a probabilistic approach to the economic impact assessment of legal frameworks.